E-Mobility: a new era for road transportation

/, News & Events/E-Mobility: a new era for road transportation
Green Mobility

The emissions from the use of fossil fuels for road transportation are one of the main causes of pollution in urban areas and of the increase in the greenhouse effect.

No wonder, then, that authorities all over the world are activating restrictions on the circulation of cars that do not respect precise emission parameters, pushing the automotive industry and consequently the energy suppliers, to turn to electric mobility.

Car Types

Over the years, the automotive industry has developed several solutions to construct electric engines; among the various types, two are the ones that have found the best response on the market:

PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) = they combine a combustion engine and an electric one, with sufficient electric power to guarantee a good running range without the use of fuel. In addition, they can be charged from an electrical power source via cable.
BEV (Battery Electric Vehicle) = vehicles equipped exclusively with an electric engine, rechargeable via cable.

These two types of engine allow, in fact, to take full advantage of the contribution of electricity even on medium/long distances, compared to other solutions that allow only support for a few kilometers or for the acceleration phases.

Charging modes

In order to provide for the supply needs, there are, to date, different recharge modes available:

1. domestic: it uses normal plugs and sockets, with the vehicle directly connected to the socket. It is suitable for light vehicles (bikes and some scooters) and is not suitable for electric cars.
2. safe home/company: it is similar to the previous mode, but there is a control device on the power cord that ensures safe operation.
3. public: method for large installations and public charging stations. It uses plug sockets and a special security systems.
4. direct DC current: it uses a charger that is outside the vehicle, the AC power supply is converted to DC in the conversion station. There are two connection standards CHAdeMo and CCS Combo.

Smart Grid e Renewable Sources

For the E-Mobility, integration with smart grids and use of energy from renewable sources, especially wind and sun, will be fundamental. The grid will be fully connected, interconnected and monitored, so as to be an integral part of the system called smart city: from charging stations to supply devices, everything will be supervised, for a more efficient network and to repair breakdowns in a short time or even to activate predictive maintenance.

The storage of electrical energy in charging stations, generally electrochemical type with batteries, is useful for low voltage solutions without conversion booths, to help the network in the distribution of energy to the various columns, when several vehicles are in charge.

Energy storage is therefore the link between the wind or solar power plant and the charging station and acts as a compensation for the availability of energy  from renewable sources that cannot be programmed (e.g. variability of wind, sun). In addition, it manages weekly/seasonal fluctuations, regulation services and grid balancing, peak shaving or isolated systems.

Future Scenarios

The need for more power requires the inclusion of more and more devices inside the power station, which must however remain small. The optimization of space generates a higher density of electronic control components, worsening the thermal conditions of the system, which must be further protected from overheating in order to ensure continuity of service. It is therefore necessary, and will be more so in the future, to find cooling solutions that intervene on the various devices in the charging infrastructure.

Which part of the infrastructure needs cooling?

Transformers are usually able to operate in high temperature conditions and maintain high efficiency by using only the external air recirculation. In some applications, with high power output and/or high outside temperatures and/or dirty air (dust, sand), it is necessary to cool the transformer cabinets in order to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

The cabinets that contain the inverters need to be conditioned, as they must work at temperatures not exceeding 35°C, because the inverters undergo a considerable yield downgrade with increasing temperature.

Storage batteries work at even lower temperatures, 25°C. The rise in temperature leads to an inevitable aging of the device, with a significant shortening of the service life.

The wind turbines are characterized at the base by a management and control section with internal electrical panels, which must be cooled.

Finally, more and more power installed directly on the charging station column can lead to the need for an air flow with the outside, for the disposal of the heat produced, but at the same time ensuring adequate protection from external agents.

What Cosmotec offers

Cosmotec offers a wide range of solutions suitable for the cooling of the different elements for the correct supply of electricity for E-Mobility. 

Here it is a small overview of Cosmotec Products: do you want to read more on this topic and on our range? Download this document, available here or contact us!

 

ComponentCritical aspectsNeedsCosmotec solutionAdvantages
Transformers cabinet- High power request
- High outdoor temperatures
-Dirty Air (debris and dust)
Maintaining correct operating temperatureAir Conditioner: Protherm Outdoor- Wide range of cooling capacities
- Wide range of power supplies
- Maximum yield in terms of efficiency
- Low noise
- IP 54/55 degree of protection
Inverter cabinetReduced performance at high temperatures
Maintening the temperature below 35°C
Air Conditioner: Protherm Outdoor- Wide range of cooling capacities
- Wide range of power supplies
- Maximum yield in terms of efficiency
- Low noise
- IP 54/55 degree of protection
Storage batteriesHigh temperatures lead to shorten service life
Maintening the temperature below 25°C Air Conditioners:Protherm Outdoor, Predator- DC power supply up to 770W (CVO) and 1 to 2 kW (PRT)
- Reliability
- Operative continuity
Wind TurbinesSection with electrical control panels in confined spaces
Maintaining correct operating temperatureAir Conditioners: Slim IN CDE, Top II ETE- Small overall dimensions and reduced projection from the panel (CDE)
- Roof Mount (ETE)
Charging columnsIncreasingly more installed power - Heat Disposal
- Protection from external agents
Filter Fan: Kryos3 GSV- Reduced depth for installation on any type of panel